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Children's Chronotype Questionnaire (QCTC)

Title of the Portuguese Version

Questionário de Cronótipo em Crianças

Original Version

Werner, H., LeBourgeois, M. K., Geiger, A., & Jenni, O. (2009)

Portuguese Version

Couto, D., Allen Gomes, A., Pinto de Azevedo, M. H., Bos, S. M. C., Leitão, J. A., & Silva, C. F. (2014)

General Description

Children’s Chronotype Questionnaire (CCTQ) was developed to measure morningness-eveningness in children from 4 up to 11 years-old. It is a parental questionnaire composed by: a short demographics section; a section of 16 open-ended questions about sleep-wake patters, separately in free days and in scheduled days; a section composed by 10 items (questions 17 to 26, consisting of Likert-type items) adapted from the Morningness/Eveningeness Scale for Children (MESC, Carskadon et al., 1993); and a final Likert-type scale item with five possible answers (plus a response option worded “I do not know”).Based on the answers of parents/tutors regarding the child, three chronotype measures can be extracted :

  • The morningness/eveningness scale score (M/E), consisting of the sum of items 17 to 26, scored 1 to 5 or in reversed order when appropriate, excepting item 21 which is scored 1 to 3;
  • The mid sleep point (phase) on free days, corrected (MSFsc), based on the formula proposed by Roenneberg et al. (2004), which is obtained based on the previous computation of several variables derived from the open-ended questions, as described by Werner et al. (2009, p. 4);
  • A five point chronotype score (CT), which corresponds to question 27 of the questionnaire, scored from 1=definitely morning type to 5=definitely evening type (further details on the CCTQ scores in Werner et al., 2009).


Note: Registered at the Portuguese IGAC, registration nr 5490/2013.

  • Couto, D., Allen Gomes, A., Pinto de Azevedo, M. H., Bos, S. M. C., Leitão, J. A. & Silva, C. F. (2014). The European Portuguese version of the Children ChronoType Questionnaire (CCTQ): Reliability and raw scores in a large continental sample. Journal of Sleep Research, 23, 160. doi:10.1111/jsr.12213/abstract http://hdl.handle.net/10316/47389

  • Werner, H., LeBourgeois, M. K., Geiger, A., & Jenni, O. (2009). Assessment of Chronotype in four- to eleven-year-old children: Reliability and Validity of the Children’s Chronotype Questionnaire (CCTQ). Chronobiology International, 26, 992-1014. doi:10.1080/07420520903044505


Ana Allen Gomes – a.allen.gomes@fpce.uc.pt