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Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale - Adolescents (EMWSS-A)

Title of the Portuguese Version

Escala de Memórias Precoces de Calor e Segurança para Adolescentes

Original Version

Richter A., Gilbert P., & McEwan, K. (2009)

Portuguese Version

Cunha, M., Matos, M., Pinto Gouveia, J., & Xavier, A. (2011)

General Description

The EMWSS-A is a self-report questionnaire that measures recall of feeling warm, safe and cared for in childhood, i.e., early positive memories of warmth and affect (e.g., “I felt secure and safe”; “I felt that I was a cherished member of my family”). This is a 21-item scale rated on a 5-point Likert scale (0= No, never; 1= Yes, but rarely; 2= Yes, sometimes; 3= Yes, often; 4= Yes, most of the time). The confirmatory factor analysis of the Portuguese version of the EMWSS-A presented, like its original version, an interpretable single component structure, excellent estimated internal consistency, good test–retest reliability, and convergence with similar scales.

  • Cunha, M., Xavier, A., Martinho, I., & Matos, M. (2014). Measuring positive emotional memories in adolescents: Psychometric properties and confirmatory factor analysis of the Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 14, 245-259. http://hdl.handle.net/10316/46868

  • Richter A, Gilbert P, & McEwan K (2009). Development of an early memories of warmth and safeness scale and its relationship to psychopathology. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 82, 171-184. doi:10.1348/147608308X395213


Marina Cunha – marina_cunha@ismt.pt

Ana Xavier – ana.mj.xavier@gmail.com

Marcela Matos – marcela.s.matos@gmail.com