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Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)

Title of the Portuguese Version

Questionário das Cinco Facetas de Mindfulness

Original Version

Baer, R., Smith, G., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006)

Portuguese Version

Gregório, S., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2011)

General Description

The original authors combined and explored five independently developed mindfulness questionnaires and found a five-factor structure, with moderate correlations between all factors, and high internal consistency.The Portuguese version of FFMQ replicated the same factor structure, level of reliability and convergent and divergent validities than the original version. The questionnaire has a total of 39 items, some of them scored in reverse (R), which correspond to the following mindfulness facets:

  • Observe 1, 6, 11, 15, 20, 26, 31, 36;
  • Describe 2, 7, 12R, 16R, 22R, 27, 32, 37;
  • Act with Awareness 5R, 8R, 13R, 18R, 23R, 28R, 34R, 38R;
  • Nonjudge 3R, 10R, 14R, 17R, 25R, 30R, 35R, 39R;
  • Nonreact 4, 9, 19, 21, 24, 29, 33.
  • When scoring the FFMQ some researchers divide the total in each category by the number of items in that category to get an average category score. The total FFMQ can be divided by 39 to get an average item score, but this total score is not recommended for the Portuguese version of FFMQ.

    • Baer, R., Smith, G., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45.

    • Gregório, S., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2011). Facetas de mindfulness: Características psicométricas de um instrumento de avaliação. Psychologica, 54, 259-280.


    Sónia Gregório – sonia.martins.gregorio@gmail.com