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Preferences Scale - 6 (PS-6)

Title of the Portuguese Version

Escala de Preferências

Original Version

Di Milia, L. (2005)

Portuguese Version

Marques, D., Gomes, A., & Azevedo, M. H. (2017)

General Description

The PS-6 is a self-report measure of morningness. It comprises 6 items which evaluates two factors: “best prepared” for activity (3 items) and morning activity (3 items). Responses are made using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = much earlier than most people; 5 = much later than most people). Low scores on the PS-6 denote morningness, whereas higher scores represent more evening preferences.

  • Di Milia, L. (2005). A psychometric evaluation and validation of the Preferences Scale. Chronobiology International, 22, 679-93. doi:10.1080/07420520500180454

  • Marques, D., Gomes, A., Di Milia, L., & Azevedo, M. H. (2017). Circadian preferences in young adults: Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Preferences Scale. Chronobiology International, 34, 403-410. doi:10.1080/07420528.2017.1280045 http://hdl.handle.net/10316/46847


Daniel Ruivo Marques – drmarques@ua.pt