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Ruminative Responses Scale – short form (RRS-S)

Title of the Portuguese Version

Escala de Respostas Ruminativas – versão reduzida

Original Version

Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003)

Portuguese Version

Dinis, A., Pinto-Gouveia, J., Duarte, C., & Castro, T. (2011)

General Description

The RRS is a 10-item scale that measures the individuals’ tendency to ruminate when in a sad or depressed mood. This scale comprises two subscales: brooding (5 items) and reflection (5 items). To the statement “what you generally do, not what you think you should do when feel down, sad or depressed” respondents rated each item on a 4 point scale (1 = “almost never” to 4 = “almost always”). Thus, scores may range between 10 and 40, with higher scores indicating higher levels of ruminative responses styles. The Portuguese version of RRS showed a good level of internal consistency for each subscale, an adequate temporal stability and good convergent and discriminant validities.

  • Dinis, A., Pinto-Gouveia, J., Duarte, C., & Castro, T. (2011). Estudo de validação da versão portuguesa da Escala de Respostas Ruminativas – Versão reduzida. Psychologica, 54, 175-202.

  • Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: a psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 247-259. 10.1023/A:1023910315561


José Pinto-Gouveia – jpgouveia@fpce.uc.pt

Alexandra Dinis – alexandra.m.b.dinis@gmail.com

Cristiana Oliveira Duarte – cristianaoduarte@gmail.com